Riau

Riau

Riau is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the central eastern coast of Sumatra along the Strait of Malacca. Until 2004 the province included the offshore Riau Islands, a large group of small islands (of which the principal islands are Batam and Bintan) located east of Sumatra Island and south of Singapore, before these islands were split off as a province in July 2004. The provincial capital and the largest city of Riau is Pekanbaru.

The province shares land borders with North Sumatra to the northwest, West Sumatra to the west, and Jambi to the south. The total area for Riau province is 87,023.66 square kilometres (33,600.02 sq mi), which stretches from the slopes of the Bukit Barisan to the Strait of Malacca. Riau has a wet tropical climate with average rainfall ranging between 2000 and 3000 millimeters per year, and the average rainfall per year is about 160 days. Riau is currently one of the richest provinces in Indonesia and is rich in natural resources, particularly petroleum, natural gas, rubber, palm oil and fibre plantations.

Riau is considered part of the Malay world. It is currently considered as the cultural center of the Malays in Indonesia. Nevertheless, Riau is considered a very diverse province, as it is inhabited by many ethnic groups, such as Malay, Minangkabau, Chinese and Batak. The local Riau dialect of Malay is considered as the lingua franca in the province, but Indonesian, the standardized form of Malay is used as the official language and also as the second language of many people. Other than that, different languages such as Minangkabau, Hokkien and varieties of Batak languages are also spoken.

Riau allegedly has been inhabited since the period between 40,000 and 10,000 BC. Between 5th to 12th century AD, traders and merchants from the Indian subcontinent visited the region to trade with the local people, spreading Hinduism and Buddhism in the process. Therefore, Riau was under the control of several Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms such as the Melayu Kingdom and the Srivijaya Empire. In the 14th century, Muslim traders from India and the Arabian Peninsula visited the region, beginning the spread of Islam in the region. By the end of the 14th century, Hindu and Buddhist influence are waning, while Islam influence are growing, leading to the dissolution of many Hindu-Buddhist Kingdoms in Riau. Those kingdoms who still existed transformed itself into an Islamic Sultanates.

By the 16th century, there are three great Malay sultanates in the region, namely the Siak Sri Indrapura Sultanate, Indragiri Sultanates and the Johor Sultanate, the latter which would split in the 19th century into the modern Johor Sultanate in the Malay peninsula and the Riau-Lingga Sultanate in the Riau Archipelago. However, by that time Europeans began frequenting the region. first the Portuguese, then the Dutch and the British. In 1824, the Dutch and British agreed to divide the sphere of influence in the region, with the Malay peninsula falling under the British and Sumatra falling under the Dutch. Soon afterwards, the power of the sultanates in the region began to wane. The sultanates soon became protectorate of the Dutch and was reduced to nothing but a puppet states of the Dutch East Indies, with the Dutch having the authority to intervene in everyday affairs.

This occurred until 1942, when the Japanese invaded and occupied Riau during the Pacific theater of World War II. After three years of occupation which was marked by atrocities and war crimes, the Japanese surrendered in 1945. The Dutch soon returned to assume control of the region, but left in 1949 after the Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference, in which the Dutch agreed to transfer sovereignty of the Dutch East Indies to the Republic of Indonesia. Since then, Riau has been part of the unitary state of Indonesia.

Since the 1970s, much of Indonesia has experienced a decline in population growth rates. Riau has been a significant exception, with increasing rates every decade since 1970 to a 4.35 percent annual rise for the 1990s; however, this rate slowed significantly during the subsequent decade. The provincial population was 5,538,367 at the 2010 census and 6,494,087 at the 2020 Census.

Independence and contemporary era

At the beginning of Indonesia’s independence, the former Riau Residency area was merged and incorporated in the Sumatra Province based in Bukittinggi. Along with the crackdown on PRRI sympathizers, Central Sumatra was further divided into three provinces, namely North Sumatra, Central Sumatra, and South Sumatra. At that time, Central Sumatra became the strongest base of the PRRI, this situation caused the central government to develop a strategy to break Central Sumatra in order to weaken the PRRI movement.

Subsequently, in 1957, based on Emergency Law Number 19 of 1957, Central Sumatra was divided into three provinces, namely Riau, Jambi and West Sumatra. Then what became the newly formed Riau province is the former Siak Sri Sultanate area of Inderapura and Riau Residency as well as the Kampar which was previously occupied during the occupation of the Japanese army in the Rhio Shu area.

Riau had become one of the areas influenced by the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia in the late 1950s. The central government held Operation Tegas under the leadership of Kaharuddin Nasution, who later became governor of the province, and succeeded in quelling the remnants of PRRI sympathizers.

After the security situation gradually recovered, the central government began to consider moving the provincial capital from Tanjung Pinang to Pekanbaru, which is geographically located in the middle part of the province. The government finally established Pekanbaru as the new provincial capital on 20 January 1959 through Kepmendagri No. December 52 / I / 44–25.

After the fall of the Old Order, Riau became one of the pillars of the New Order’s economic development which was stretched back. In 1944, NPPM geologist Richard H. Hopper and Toru Oki and their team discovered the largest oil well in Southeast Asia, namely in Minas, Siak. This well was originally named Minas No. 1. Minas is famous for its Sumatra Light Crude (SLC) oil which is good and has low sulfur content.

In the early 1950s, new oil wells were found in Minas, Duri, Bengkalis, Pantaicermin, and Petapahan. Petroleum exploitation in Riau began in the Siak Block in September 1963, with the signing of a work contract with PT California Texas Indonesia (now Chevron Pacific Indonesia). This province had been relied upon as a contributor to 70 percent of Indonesia’s oil production in the 1970s.

Riau was also the main destination for the transmigration program launched by the Suharto administration. Many families from Java have moved to newly opened oil palm plantations in Riau, thus forming a separate community which is now quite significant.

In 1999, Saleh Djasit was elected as the second native Riaunese (besides Arifin Achmad) and first elected by the Provincial House of Representatives as governor. In 2003, former Regent of Indragiri Hilir, Rusli Zainal, was elected governor, and was re-elected through direct elections by the people in 2008. Starting on 19 February 2014, Riau Province was officially led by the governor, Annas Maamun. Just leading 7 months, Annas Maamun was deposed after the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) arrested Annas Maamun’s hand in a case of land use change in Kuantan Singingi Regency.

Geography

Geographically, Riau which has thousands of cities in Pekanbaru is located at position 02 ° 25 ‘LU-01 ° 15 ° LS and 100 ° 03′-104 ° 00’ BT. The area is quite extensive and is located in the central part of Sumatra. Riau is directly adjacent to North Sumatra and the Straits of Malacca in the north, Jambi to the south, West Sumatra to the west and the Riau Islands in the east. The province shares maritime borders with Singapore and Malaysia.

In general, the geography of Riau consists of mountains, lowlands, and islands. The mountain area lies in the western part, namely the Bukit Barisan Mountains, near the border of West Sumatra. The elevation decreases towards the east, making most of the central and eastern part of the province covered with lowlands. Off the eastern coast lies the Strait of Malacca where several island lies.


Climate

In general, Riau Province has a wet tropical climate that is influenced by two seasons, namely the rainy and dry seasons. The average rainfall received by Riau Province is between 2,000 – 3,000 mm / year with an average annual rainfall of 160 days. The areas that received the most rain were Rokan Hulu Regency and Pekanbaru City. Meanwhile, the area that received the least rainfall was Siak Regency.

The average air temperature of Riau is 25.9 °C with maximum temperatures reaching 34.4 °C and minimum temperatures reach 20.1 °C. The highest temperature occurs in urban areas on the coast. On the contrary, the lowest temperature covers the high mountains and mountains. Air humidity can reach an average of 75%. Slightly different for the island region in the eastern region is also influenced by the characteristics of the sea climate.

As in most other province of Indonesia, Riau has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen climate classification Af) bordering on a tropical monsoon climate. The climate is very much dictated by the surrounding sea and the prevailing wind system. It has high average temperature and high average rainfall.


Ecology

Giam Siak Kecil – Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve, Indonesia, is a peatland area in Sumatra featuring sustainable timber production and two wildlife reserves, which are home to the Sumatran tiger, Sumatran elephant, Malayan tapir, and Malayan sun bear. Research activities in the biosphere include the monitoring of flagship species and in-depth study on peatland ecology. Initial studies indicate a real potential for sustainable economic development using native flora and fauna for the economic benefit of local inhabitants.

Cagar Biosfer Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu (CB-GSK-BB) is one of seven Biosphere Reserves in Indonesia. They are located in two areas of Riau Province, Bengkalis and Siak. CB-GSK-BB is a trial presented by Riau at the 21st Session of the International Coordinating Council of Man and the Biosphere (UNESCO) in Jeju, South Korea, on 26 May 2009. CB-GSK-BB is one of 22 proposed locations in 17 countries accepted as reserves for the year. A Biosphere Reserve is the only internationally recognised concept of environmental conservation and cultivation. Thus the supervision and development of CB-GSK-BB is a worldwide concern at a regional level.

CB-GSK-BB is a unique type of Peat Swamp Forest in the Kampar Peninsula Peat Forest (with a small area of swamp). Another peculiarity is that the CB-GSK-BB was initiated by private parties in co-operation with the government through BBKSDA (The Center for the Conservation of Natural Resources), including the notorious conglomerate involved in forest destruction, Sinar Mas Group, owning the largest paper and pulp company in Indonesia.

Demographics

The total population of Riau spread in 12 regencies/cities as of June 2016 reached 5,921,987 people consisting of 3,053,043 male inhabitants and 2,868,944 female inhabitants. Based from the population per regency/city, the largest population was in Pekanbaru City with 441,554 male population and 428,477 female, while the smallest population was in the Kepulauan Meranti Regency where 106,269 people were male and 98,700 were female. When viewed from the two regencies/cities which have the largest and smallest population in Riau Province, the comparison of many male population is more dominant than the female population.


Ethnic groups

Riau is considered a very ethnically diverse province. As of 2015, the ethnic groups in Riau consist of Malays (37.74%), Javanese (25.05%), Minangkabau (11.26%), Batak (7.31%), Banjar (3.78%), Chinese (3.72%), and Bugis (2.27%). The Malays are the largest ethnic group with a composition of 37.74% of the entire population of Riau. They generally come from coastal areas in Rokan Hilir, Dumai, Bengkalis, Pulau Meranti, up to Pelalawan, Siak, Inderagiri Hulu and Inderagiri Hilir. Riau was once the seat of great Malay sultanates, such as the Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura, the Pelalawan Sultanate and the Indragiri Sultanate.

There is also a sizable population Minangkabau people living in Riau, mostly in the areas bordering West Sumatra, such as Rokan Hulu, Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, and part of Inderagiri Hulu. Pekanbaru, the capital of Riau, has a Minangkabau majority, since it was once one of the Minangkabau rantau (migration) area. Many Minang in Pekanbaru have lived there for generations and has since assimilated into the Malay community. Most Minang in Riau generally work as merchants and live in urban areas such as Pekanbaru, Bangkinang, Duri, and Dumai.

There are many other ethnic groups migrating from other province of Indonesia, such as the Batak Mandailing people who mostly lives in areas bordering North Sumatra such as Rokan Hulu. Most of the Mandailing people now identify themselves as Malay rather than as Minangkabau or Batak. In the 19th century, the Banjarese of South Kalimantan and the Bugis of South Sulawesi also began arriving in Riau to seek better lives. Most of them settled in the Indragiri Hilir areas, especially around Tembilahan. The opening of Caltex oil mining company in the 1940s in Rumbai, encouraged people from throughout the country to migrate to Riau.

There are sizeable Javanese and Sundanese population in Riau. Javanese forms the second-largest ethnic group in the province, forming 25.05% of the total population. Most of them migrated to Riau due to the transmigration program dating from the Dutch East Indies and continued during the Soeharto administration. The majority of them lives in transmigration communities spread throughout the region.

Likewise, the Chinese people are generally similar to the Minangkabau as many of them also work as merchants. Many Riau Chinese lives in the capital Pekanbaru, and many can also found in coastal areas in the east such as Bagansiapiapi, Selatpanjang, Rupat and Bengkalis. Most of the Chinese people in Riau are Hoklo people, whose ancestors migrated from Quanzhou in modern-day Fujian from the early 19th-century to the mid 20th-century. Some of the Riau Chinese has migrated to other parts of Indonesia, such as Medan and Jakarta, to seek better life opportunities, while some have also migrated to other countries such as Singapore and Taiwan.

There are also some groups of indigenous people who live in rural areas and riverbanks, such as the Sakai, Akit, Talang Mamak and Orang Laut. Some of them still leading the nomadic and Hunter-gatherer lifestyle in the remote interior of Riau, while most settled into major cities and towns in with the rise of industrialisation.

Moreover, Jakarta is sinking about 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 inches) each year, and up to 20 centimetres (7.9 inches) in the northern coastal areas. After a feasibility study, a ring dyke is under construction around Jakarta Bay to help cope with the threat from the sea. The dyke will be equipped with a pumping system and retention areas to defend against seawater and function as a toll road. The project, known as Giant Sea Wall Jakarta, is expected to be completed by 2025.

In January 2014, the central government agreed to build two dams in Ciawi, Bogor and a 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile) tunnel from Ciliwung River to Cisadane River to ease flooding in the city.

Nowadays, a 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile), with capacity 60 cubic metres (2,100 cubic feet) per second, underground water tunnel between Ciliwung River and the East Flood Canal is being worked on to ease the Ciliwung River overflows.


Climate

Jakarta has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system. The wet season in Jakarta covers the majority of the year, running from October through May. The remaining four months (June through September) constitute the city’s drier season (each of these four months has an average monthly rainfall of fewer than 100 millimetres (3.9 in)). Technically speaking, however, only August qualifies as the genuine dry season month, as it has less than 60 millimetres (2.4 in) of rainfall. Located in the western part of Java, Jakarta’s wet season rainfall peaks in January and February with average monthly rainfall of 297.7 millimetres (11.72 in), and its dry season’s low point is in August with a monthly average of 43.2 mm (1.70 in).

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Demographic

Jakarta attracts people from across Indonesia, often in search of employment. The 1961 census showed that 51% of the city’s population was born in Jakarta. Inward immigration tended to negate the effect of family planning programs.

Between 1961 and 1980, the population of Jakarta doubled, and during the period 1980–1990, the city’s population grew annually by 3.7%. The 2010 census counted some 9.58 million people, well above government estimates. The population rose from 4.5 million in 1970 to 9.5 million in 2010, counting only legal residents, while the population of Greater Jakarta rose from 8.2 million in 1970 to 28.5 million in 2010.

As per 2014, the population of Jakarta stood at ten million, with a population density of 15,174 people/km2. In 2014, the population of Greater Jakarta was 30 million, accounting for 11% of Indonesia’s overall population. It is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world’s biggest megacity. The gender ratio was 102.8 (males per 100 females) in 2010 and 101.3 in 2014.

Ethnicity

Jakarta is a pluralistic and religiously diverse city. As of the 2010 Census, 36.17% of the city’s population were Javanese, 28.29% Betawi, 14.61% Sundanese, 6.62% Chinese, 3.42% Batak, 2.85% Minangkabau, 0.96% Malays, Indo and others 7.08%.

The ‘Betawi’ (Orang Betawi, or ‘people of Batavia’) are the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia who became recognised as an ethnic group around the 18th–19th century. They mostly descend from Southeast Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs.

Betawi people are a creole ethnic group who came from various parts of Indonesia and intermarried with Chinese, Arabs and Europeans. Betawi form a minority in the city; most lived in the fringe areas of Jakarta with hardly any Betawi-dominated regions of central Jakarta. The Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New Year in Glodok, Jakarta

A significant Chinese community has lived in Jakarta for many centuries. They traditionally reside around old urban areas, such as Pinangsia, Pluit and Glodok (Jakarta Chinatown) areas. They also can be found in the old Chinatowns of Senen and Jatinegara. Officially, they make up 5.53% of the Jakarta population, although this number may be under-reported.

The Sumatran residents are diverse. According to the 2010 Census, roughly 346,000 Batak, 305,000 Minangkabau, and 155,000 Malays lived in the city. The number of Batak people has grown in ranking, from eighth in 1930 to fifth in 2000.

Toba Batak is the largest sub-ethnic Batak group in Jakarta. Minangkabau people generally work as merchants, peddlers, and artisans, with more in white-collar professions, such as doctors, teachers and journalists.

Language

Indonesian is the official and dominant language of Jakarta, while many elderly people speak Dutch or Chinese, depending on their upbringing. English is also widely used for communication, especially in Central and South Jakarta. Each of the ethnic groups uses their mother language at home, such as Betawi, Javanese, and Sundanese.

The Betawi language is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. It is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Dutch, Portuguese, Sundanese, Javanese, Minangkabau, Chinese, and Arabic.


Religion

In 2017, Jakarta’s religious composition was distributed over Islam (83.43%), Protestantism (8.63%), Catholicism (4.0%), Buddhism (3.74%), Hinduism (0.19%), and Confucianism (0.01%). About 231 people claimed to follow folk religions.

Most pesantren (Islamic boarding schools) in Jakarta are affiliated with the traditionalist Nahdlatul Ulama, modernist organisations mostly catering to a socioeconomic class of educated urban elites and merchant traders. They give priority to education, social welfare programs and religious propagation. Many Islamic organisations have headquarters in Jakarta, including Nahdlatul Ulama, Indonesian Ulema Council, Muhammadiyah, Jaringan Islam Liberal, and Front Pembela Islam.

The Roman Catholic community has a Metropolis, the Archdiocese of Jakarta that includes West Java as part of the ecclesiastical province. There is also a Baháʼí Faith community.

Culture

As the capital of Indonesia, Jakarta is the melting point of cultures of all ethnic groups of the country. Though Betawi people are considered as an indigenous community of Jakarta, the culture of the city represents many languages and ethnic groups, support differences in regard to religion, traditions and linguistics, rather than any single and dominant culture.


Arts and festivals

The Betawi culture is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming a language island in the surrounding area. Betawi arts have a low profile in Jakarta, and most Betawi people have moved to the suburbs. The cultures of the Javanese and other Indonesian ethnic groups have a higher profile than that of the Betawi. There is a significant Chinese influence in Betawi culture, reflected in the popularity of Chinese cakes and sweets, firecrackers and Betawi wedding attire that demonstrates Chinese and Arab influences.

Some festivals such as the Jalan Jaksa Festival, Kemang Festival, Festival Condet and Lebaran Betawi include efforts to preserve Betawi arts by inviting artists to display performances. Jakarta has several performing art centres, such as the classical concert hall Aula Simfonia Jakarta in Kemayoran, Taman Ismail Marzuki (TIM) art centre in Cikini, Gedung Kesenian Jakarta near Pasar Baru, Balai Sarbini in the Plaza Semanggi area, Bentara Budaya Jakarta in the Palmerah area, Pasar Seni (Art Market) in Ancol, and traditional Indonesian art performances at the pavilions of some provinces in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including Wayang and Gamelan performances. Javanese Wayang Orang performances can be found at Wayang Orang Bharata theatre.

There are 16 traditional and new creation dances originating from Jakarta. Culture dance that expresses feelings, behavior and enthusiasm, which was created by the ancestors.

Arts and culture festivals and exhibitions include the annual ARKIPEL – Jakarta International Documentary and Experimental Film Festival, Jakarta International Film Festival (JiFFest), Djakarta Warehouse Project, Jakarta Fashion Week, Jakarta Fashion & Food Festival (JFFF), Jakarnaval, Jakarta Night Festival, Kota Tua Creative Festival, Indonesia International Book Fair (IIBF), Indonesia Creative Products and Jakarta Arts and Crafts exhibition.

Art Jakarta is a contemporary art fair, which is held annually. Flona Jakarta is a flora-and-fauna exhibition, held annually in August at Lapangan Banteng Park, featuring flowers, plant nurseries, and pets. Jakarta Fair is held annually from mid-June to mid-July to celebrate the anniversary of the city and is mostly centred around a trade fair. However, this month-long fair also features entertainment, including arts and music performances by local musicians. Jakarta International Java Jazz Festival (JJF) is one of the largest jazz festivals in the world and arguably the biggest in the Southern hemisphere, and is held annually in March.

Several foreign art and culture centres in Jakarta promote culture and language through learning centres, libraries and art galleries. These include the Chinese Confucius Institute, the Dutch Erasmus Huis, the British Council, the French Alliance Française, the German Goethe-Institut, the Japan Foundation, and the Jawaharlal Nehru Indian Cultural Center.

Cuisine

All varieties of Indonesian cuisine have a presence in Jakarta. The local cuisine is Betawi cuisine, which reflects various foreign culinary traditions. Betawi cuisine is heavily influenced by Malay-Chinese Peranakan cuisine, Sundanese and Javanese cuisine, which is also influenced by Indian, Arabic and European cuisines.

One of the most popular local dishes of Betawi cuisine is Soto Betawi which is prepared from chunks of beef and offal in rich and spicy cow’s milk or coconut milk broth. Other popular Betawi dishes include soto kaki, nasi uduk, kerak telor (spicy omelette), nasi ulam, asinan, ketoprak, rujak and gado-gado Betawi (salad in peanut sauce).

Jakarta cuisine can be found in modest street-side warung food stalls and kaki lima (five legs) travelling vendors to high-end fine dining restaurants. Live music venues and exclusive restaurants are abundant. Many traditional foods from far-flung regions in Indonesia can be found in Jakarta. For example, traditional Padang restaurants and low-budget Warteg (Warung Tegal) food-stalls are ubiquitous in the capital. Other popular street foods include nasi goreng (fried rice), sate (skewered meats), pecel lele (fried catfish), bakso (meatballs), bakpau (Chinese bun) and siomay (fish dumplings).

There are various shapes and types, as well as tastes and aromas, from dozens of traditional foods, snacks, and drinks, from Jakarta. All of them represent habits, tastes, as well as a wealth of local ingredients to make them.

Jalan Sabang, Jalan Sidoarjo, Jalan Kendal at Menteng area, Kota Tua, Blok S, Blok M, Jalan Tebet are all popular destinations for street-food lovers. Trendy restaurants, cafe and bars can be found at Menteng, Kemang, Jalan Senopati, Kuningan, Senayan, Pantai Indah Kapuk, and Kelapa Gading. Chinese street-food is plentiful at Jalan Pangeran, Manga Besar and Petak Sembilan in the old Jakarta area, while the Little Tokyo area of Blok M has many Japanese style restaurants and bars.

Lenggang Jakarta is a food court, accommodating small traders and street vendors, where Indonesian foods are available within a single compound. At present, there are two such food courts, located at Monas and Kemayoran. Thamrin 10 is a food and creative park located at Menteng, where varieties of food stall are available.

Global fast-food chains like McDonald’s, KFC, Burger King, Carl’s Jr., Wendy’s, A&W, Fatburger, Johnny Rockets, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts are present, along with local brands like J’CO, Es Teler 77, Kebab Turki, CFC, and Japanese HokBen. Foreign cuisines such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Indian, American, French, Mediterranean cuisine’s like Turkish, Italian, Middle-Eastern cuisine, and modern fusion food restaurants can all be found in Jakarta.

Kabupaten & Kotamadya

Riau Province is subdivided into ten regencies (kabupaten) and two autonomous cities (kota).

Transport

As a metropolitan area of about 30 million people, Jakarta has a variety of transport systems. Jakarta was awarded 2021 global Sustainable Transport Award (STA) for integrated public transportation system.

The city prioritised development of road networks, which were mostly designed to accommodate private vehicles. A notable feature of Jakarta’s present road system is the toll road network. Composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards, the network provides inner as well as outer city connections. An ‘odd-even’ policy limits road use to cars with either odd or even-numbered registration plates on a particular day as a transitional measure to alleviate traffic congestion until the future introduction of electronic road pricing.

There are many bus terminals in the city, from where buses operate on numerous routes to connect neighborhoods within the city limit, to other areas of Greater Jakarta area and to cities across the island of Java. The biggest of the bus terminal is Pulo Gebang Bus Terminal, which is arguably the largest of its kind in Southeast Asia. Main terminus for long distance train services are Gambir and Pasar Senen. High-speed railways being constructed connecting Jakarta to Bandung and another one is at planning stage from Jakarta to Surabaya.

Rapid transit in Greater Jakarta consists of TransJakarta bus rapid transit, Jakarta LRT, Jakarta MRT, KRL Commuterline commuter rail, and Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link. Another transit system Greater Jakarta LRT is expected to be operational by early 2021.

Privately owned bus systems like Kopaja, MetroMini, Mayasari Bakti and PPD also provide important services for Jakarta commuters with numerous routes throughout the city. Pedicabs are banned from the city for causing traffic congestion. Bajaj auto rickshaw provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. Angkot microbuses also play a major role in road transport of Jakarta. Taxicabs and ojeks (motorcycle taxis) are available in the city.

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (CGK) is the main airport serving the Greater Jakarta area, while Halim Perdanakusuma Airport (HLP) accommodates private and low-cost domestic flights. Other airports in the Jakarta metropolitan area include Pondok Cabe Airport and an airfield on Pulau Panjang, part of the Thousand Island archipelago.

Indonesia’s busiest and Jakarta’s main seaport Tanjung Priok serves many ferry connections to different parts of Indonesia.The old port Sunda Kelapa only accommodate pinisi, a traditional two masted wooden sailing ship serving inter-island freight service in the archipelago. Muara Angke Port was renovated, which is used as a public port to Thousand Islands (Indonesia), while Marina Ancol Port ia used as a tourist port.

Parks

In June 2011, Jakarta had only 10.5% green open spaces (Ruang Terbuka Hijau), although this grew to 13.94%. Public parks are included in public green open spaces. There are about 300 integrated child-friendly public spaces (RPTRA) in the city in 2019. As of 2014, 183 water reservoirs and lakes supported the greater Jakarta area.

Merdeka Square (Medan Merdeka) is an almost 1 km2 field housing the symbol of Jakarta, Monas or Monumen Nasional (National Monument). Until 2000, it was the world’s largest city square. The square was created by Dutch Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels (1810) and was originally named Koningsplein (King’s Square).

On 10 January 1993, President Soeharto started the beautification of the square. Features including a deer park and 33 trees that represent the 33 provinces of Indonesia.

Lapangan Banteng (Buffalo Field) is located in Central Jakarta near Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Cathedral, and Jakarta Central Post Office.

It covers about 4.5 hectares. Initially, it was called Waterlooplein and functioned as the ceremonial square during the colonial period. Colonial monuments and memorials erected on the square during the colonial period were demolished during the Sukarno era.

The most notable monument in the square is the Monumen Pembebasan Irian Barat (Monument of the Liberation of West Irian). During the 1970s and 1980s, the park was used as a bus terminal. In 1993, the park was again turned into a public space. It became a recreation place for people and now serves as an exhibition place or for other events. ‘Jakarta Flona’ (Flora dan Fauna), a flower and decoration plants and pet exhibition, is held in this park around August annually.

Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Miniature Park of Indonesia), in East Jakarta, has ten mini parks.

Suropati Park is located in Menteng, Central Jakarta. The park is surrounded by Dutch colonial buildings. Taman Suropati was known as Burgemeester Bisschopplein during the colonial time. The park is circular-shaped with a surface area of 16,322 square metres (175,690 square feet). Several modern statues were made for the park by artists of ASEAN countries, which contributes to its nickname Taman persahabatan seniman ASEAN (‘Park of the ASEAN artists friendship’).

Menteng Park was built on the site of the former Persija football stadium. Situ Lembang Park is also located nearby, which has a lake at the centre.

Kalijodo Park is the newest park, in Penjaringan subdistrict, with 3.4 hectares (8.4 acres) beside the Krendang River. It formally opened on 22 February 2017. The park is open 24 hours as green open space (RTH) and child-friendly integrated public space (RPTRA) and has international-standard skateboard facilities.

Muara Angke Wildlife Sanctuary and Angke Kapuk Nature Tourism Park at Penjaringan in North Jakarta. Ragunan Zoo is located in Pasar Minggu, South Jakarta. It is the world’s third-oldest zoo and is the second-largest with the most diverse animal and plant populations.

Setu Babakan is a 32-hectare lake surrounded by Betawi cultural village, located at Jagakarsa, South Jakarta. Dadap Merah Park is also found in this area.

Ancol Dreamland is the largest integrated tourism area in Southeast Asia. It is located along the bay, at Ancol in North Jakarta.

Taman Waduk Pluit/Pluit Lake park and Putra Putri Park at Pluit, North Jakarta.

Tebet Honda Park, Puring Park, Mataram Park, Taman Langsat and Taman Ayodya in South Jakarta.