Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
Unity in Diversity


Bhinneka Tunggal Ika - Unity in Diversity

Indonesia (/ˌɪndəˈnʒə/ (About this soundlisten) IN-də-NEE-zhə), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia] (About this soundlisten)), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of more than seventeen thousand islands, including Sumatra, Java, Borneo (Kalimantan), Sulawesi, and New Guinea (Papua). Indonesia is the world’s largest island country and the 14th-largest country by land area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles). With over 267 million people, it is the world’s 4th-most-populous country as well as the most-populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world’s most-populous island, is home to more than half of the country’s population.

The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected legislature. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. The country’s capital, Jakarta, is the second-most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one of the world’s highest levels of biodiversity.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Sunni traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while Europeans introduced Christianity through colonisation. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese, French and British, the Dutch were the foremost colonial power for much of their 350-year presence in the archipelago. The concept of “Indonesia” as a nation-state emerged in the early 20th century and the country proclaimed its independence in 1945. However, it was not until 1949 that the Dutch recognised Indonesia’s sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest one being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed with the motto “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” (“Unity in Diversity” literally, “many, yet one”), defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. The economy of Indonesia is the world’s 16th largest by nominal GDP and 7th by GDP at PPP. The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the United Nations, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20, and a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Ancient Sites

A candi (pronounced [tʃandi]) is a Hindu or Buddhist temple in Indonesia, mostly built during the Zaman Hindu-Buddha or “Hindu-Buddhist period”, between the 4th and 15th centuries. Candi as an ancient stone building used for worship. Candis as sacred structures of Hindu and Buddhist heritage, used for religious rituals and ceremonies in Indonesia. However, ancient secular structures such as gates, urban ruins, pools and bathing places are often called candi too.. There above list of 62 Candis documented.


National Parks

This is the list of the national parks of Indonesia. Of the 54 national parks, 6 are World Heritage Sites, 9 are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and 5 are wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar convention. A total of 9 parks are largely marine. Around 9% of the Indonesia surface are national parks.
Local Languages
(million) Population


There are 633 recognised ethnic groups in Indonesia. Based on ethnic classification, the largest ethnic group in Indonesia is the Javanese who make up about 40% of the total population. The Javanese are concentrated on the island of Java, but millions have migrated to other islands throughout the archipelago. The Sundanese, Melayu people, Batak, Madurese, Minangkabau, and Buginese are the next largest groups in the country. Many ethnic groups, particularly in Kalimantan and Papua, have only thousands of members. There are 27 of them have noted above.


Indonesian territory is divided into 34 provinces, which are also grouped into 3 time zones. There are 18 Provinces that are included in the Western Indonesia Time Zone – WIB (Waktu Indonesia bagian Barat), 12 Provinces that are included in the Central Indonesia Time Zone – WITA (Waktu Indonesia bagian Tengah), and 4 Provinces that are included in the Eastern Indonesia Time Zone – WIT (Waktu Indonesia bagian Timur).

Traditions & Culture

Various ethnicities make life rich with a variety of cultures, arts, crafts, from in-form to non-tangible objects, which include; traditional houses, clothing, and accessories, handicrafts, dances, and cultural celebrations..

Food & Agriculture

The lush tropical archipelago nature provides abundant gifts, which include fruits, vegetables and major food crops. History has proven that this fertile island nation is a producer of spices that people all over the world hunt.

Nature & Landscape

This archipelagic country which has an agrarian culture is dotted with rows of volcanoes, which make fertile land, dozens of beautiful lakes, thousands of rivers on thousands of islands, flow into bays, straits, and seas..